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Before the advent of computers around 1950, optimization centered either on smalldimensional problems solved by looking at zeroes of first derivatives and signs of second derivatives, or on infinitedimensional problems about curves and surfaces. In both cases, "variations" were employed to understand how a local solution might be characterized. Computers changed the picture by opening the possibility of solving largescale problems involving inequalities, instead of only equations. Inequalities had to be recognized as important because the decisions to be optimized were constrained by the need to respect many upper or lower bounds on their feasibility. A new kind of mathematical analysis, beyond traditional calculus, had to be developed to address these needs. It built first on appealing to the convexity of sets and functions, but went on to amazingly broad and successful concepts of variational geometry, subgradients, subderivatives, and variational convergence beyond just that. This talk will explain these revolutionary developments and why there were essential.
Event date: 1/11/2022
Speaker: Prof. Terry Rockafellar (University of Washington)
Hosted by: Department of Applied Mathematics
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Mathematical optimization Computer science  Mathematics Convex sets Convex functions
 Resource Type:
 Video

ebook
A Cool, Brisk Walk Through Discrete Mathematics, an innovative and nontraditional approach to learning Discrete Math, is available for low cost from Blurb or via free download.
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Mathematics Textbooks Computer science  Mathematics
 Resource Type:
 ebook

ebook
This brief book provides a noncomprehensive introduction to GNU Octave, a free open source alternative to MatLab. The basic syntax and usage is explained through concrete examples from the mathematics courses a math, computer science, or engineering major encounters in the first two years of college: linear algebra, calculus, and differential equations.
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Programming (Mathematics) Textbooks GNU Octave Computer science  Mathematics
 Resource Type:
 ebook

ebook
Discrete Mathematics: An Open Introduction is a free, open source textbook appropriate for a first or second year undergraduate course for math majors, especially those who will go on to teach. The textbook has been developed while teaching the Discrete Mathematics course at the University of Northern Colorado. Primitive versions were used as the primary textbook for that course since Spring 2013, and have been used by other instructors as a free additional resource. Since then it has been used as the primary text for this course at UNC, as well as at other institutions.
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Mathematics Textbooks Computer science  Mathematics
 Resource Type:
 ebook

ebook
This is a text that covers the standard topics in a sophomorelevel course in discrete mathematics: logic, sets, proof techniques, basic number theory, functions, relations, and elementary combinatorics, with an emphasis on motivation. It explains and clarifies the unwritten conventions in mathematics, and guides the students through a detailed discussion on how a proof is revised from its draft to a final polished form. Handson exercises help students understand a concept soon after learning it. The text adopts a spiral approach: many topics are revisited multiple times, sometimes from a different perspective or at a higher level of complexity. The goal is to slowly develop students' problemsolving and writing skills.Open SUNY Textbooks is an open access textbook publishing initiative established by State University of New York libraries and supported by SUNY Innovative Instruction Technology Grants. This initiative publishes highquality, costeffective course resources by engaging faculty as authors and peerreviewers, and libraries as publishing service and infrastructure. The pilot launched in 2012, providing an editorial framework and service to authors, students and faculty, and establishing a community of practice among libraries. Participating libraries in the 2012 2013 pilot include SUNY Geneseo, College at Brockport, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, SUNY Fredonia, Upstate Medical University, and University at Buffalo, with support from other SUNY libraries and SUNY Press. More information can be found at http://textbooks.opensuny.org.
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Mathematics Textbooks Computer science  Mathematics
 Resource Type:
 ebook

ebook
All of the mathematics required beyond basic calculus is developed “from scratch.” Moreover, the book generally alternates between “theory” and “applications”: one or two chapters on a particular set of purely mathematical concepts are followed by one or two chapters on algorithms and applications; the mathematics provides the theoretical underpinnings for the applications, while the applications both motivate and illustrate the mathematics. Of course, this dichotomy between theory and applications is not perfectly maintained: the chapters that focus mainly on applications include the development of some of the mathematics that is specific to a particular application, and very occasionally, some of the chapters that focus mainly on mathematics include a discussion of related algorithmic ideas as well. The mathematical material covered includes the basics of number theory (including unique factorization, congruences, the distribution of primes, and quadratic reciprocity) and of abstract algebra (including groups, rings, fields, and vector spaces). It also includes an introduction to discrete probability theory—this material is needed to properly treat the topics of probabilistic algorithms and cryptographic applications. The treatment of all these topics is more or less standard, except that the text only deals with commutative structures (i.e., abelian groups and commutative rings with unity) — this is all that is really needed for the purposes of this text, and the theory of these structures is much simpler and more transparent than that of more general, noncommutative structures. There are a few sections that are marked with a “(∗),” indicating that the material covered in that section is a bit technical, and is not needed else where. There are many examples in the text, which form an integral part of the book, and should not be skipped. There are a number of exercises in the text that serve to reinforce, as well as to develop important applications and generalizations of, the material presented in the text. Some exercises are underlined. These develop important (but usually simple) facts, and should be viewed as an integral part of the book. It is highly recommended that the reader work these exercises, or at the very least, read and understand their statements. In solving exercises, the reader is free to use any previously stated results in the text, including those in previous exercises. However, except where otherwise noted, any result in a section marked with a “(∗),” or in §5.5, need not and should not be used outside the section in which it appears. There is a very brief “Preliminaries” chapter, which fixes a bit of notation and recalls a few standard facts. This should be skimmed over by the reader. There is an appendix that contains a few useful facts; where such a fact is used in the text, there is a reference such as “see §An,” which refers to the item labeled “An” in the appendix.
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Number theory Algebra Textbooks Computer science  Mathematics
 Resource Type:
 ebook

ebook
In writing this book, care was taken to use language and examples that gradually wean students from a simpleminded mechanical approach andmove them toward mathematical maturity. We also recognize that many students who hesitate to ask for help from an instructor need a readable text, and we have tried to anticipate the questions that go unasked. The wide range of examples in the text are meant to augment the "favorite examples" that most instructors have for teaching the topcs in discrete mathematics. To provide diagnostic help and encouragement, we have included solutions and/or hints to the oddnumbered exercises. These solutions include detailed answers whenever warranted and complete proofs, not just terse outlines of proofs. Our use of standard terminology and notation makes Applied Discrete Structures a valuable reference book for future courses. Although many advanced books have a short review of elementary topics, they cannot be complete. The text is divided into lecturelength sections, facilitating the organization of an instructor's presentation.Topics are presented in such a way that students' understanding can be monitored through thoughtprovoking exercises. The exercises require an understanding of the topics and how they are interrelated, not just a familiarity with the key words. An Instructor's Guide is available to any instructor who uses the text. It includes: Chapterbychapter comments on subtopics that emphasize the pitfalls to avoid; Suggested coverage times; Detailed solutions to most evennumbered exercises; Sample quizzes, exams, and final exams. This textbook has been used in classes atCasper College (WY), Grinnell College (IA), Luzurne Community College (PA), University of the Puget Sound (WA).
 Subjects:
 Mathematics and Statistics
 Keywords:
 Mathematics Textbooks Computer science  Mathematics
 Resource Type:
 ebook